How Is Personality Developed?


There is not a clear answer as to why people act, behave, or do what they do.  However, there are different views of which factors have the most effect on a human being’s development.  View A is “People are formed the most by their parents, relationships, and values”, view B is “People are formed the most by their own genetics and personality and personal decisions”, and view C is “People are formed the most by the current influences of their time:  peers, spouse/significant others, and media”.  View A seems to be the most accurate because most of a child’s brain is formed when he or she is living with their parents.

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View A which is “People are formed the most by their parents, relationships, and values” is the most accurate based on when the child’s brain takes in the most information.  By the time a child reaches five years of age, 90% of their brain growth is already developed.  Children’s brains are adapting to life extremely rapidly when they are living with their parents and siblings.  They do start school towards the end of this rapid brain development phase, but they are towards the end of it.

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Based on a study by Kwalombota Mahalihali called “Families Influences on the development of a Child’s Behavior”, he states “Families, especially parents, play a fundamental role in forming the values of children. The ability to cope with and adjust to life’s problems and demands is based upon the psychological foundations of early family experiences.”  A person’s family has the tendency to predict who the child will be in the future.  What the family values and how parents teach children to teach others helps predict how the child will act with others when they are older.  Unfortunately, if a family is abusive or unhappy, the child’s emotions can become out of whack.  Thus, he or she will become an abnormal individual.

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View B is that “People are formed the most by their own genetics and personality and personal decisions.”  Genetics do have a big factor in determining who a person will be.  Like I stated previously, part of the way I am is because my genetics are a mix of my mother’s and father’s.  More than that, though, I believe growing up with them and acquiring their characteristics caused me to be the way I am.  Genetics probably had something to do with it, also though.  The best research to figure out the relationship of genes to personality are twin studies.  In a twin study entitled “Self-Efficacy Is Mainly Genetic, Not Learned: A Multiple-Rater Twin Study on the Causal Structure of General Self-Efficacy in Young People”, the results found “that additive genetic factors explained 75% of the variation in the common psychometric general self-efficacy factor. The remaining 25% of the variation in this factor was explained by unique, non-shared environmental effects. The impact of shared environmental sources on the common factor was non-significant. There were no significant sex differences in the estimates of the model” (Waaktaar & Torgersen 657).  Genetics accounted for 75% of the twins’ personalities while 25% were explained by their individual environments growing up.  This concludes that genetics do have a large influence on people, but not the whole person.

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View C is that “People are formed the most by the current influences of their time:  peers, spouse/significant others, and media.”  This holds a big factor on who a human becomes personality-wise because people learn by imitation just like primates.  There was a book written in 1950 by a sociologist named David Riesman.  It was entitled Lonely Crowd: A Study of the Changing American Character.  It was about different personality types affected by their surroundings and what was going on in the media.

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The three types of personalities that Riesman discussed were tradition-oriented, inner-directed, and other-directed personalities.  People that are very set in their ways and are reluctant to change have tradition-oriented personalities.  They also tend to believe that everything they do is right.  People who feel guilty for everything (even things completely out of their control) have inner-directed personalities.  Their consciences are huge.  They self-depreciate themselves because they always want to help situations that would be impossible for them to help.  The last type of personality discussed by Riesman was the other-directed personality.  They are on the fence about what is right and what is wrong in this world.  They sometimes follow the crowd and they sometimes don’t.  They sometimes feel guilty if they do something wrong.  They sometimes don’t feel guilty.  A good word that I would describe this personality as is “wishy-washy”.  Wishy-washy means that they don’t know what they want, and their responses are always up in the air.

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In conclusion, View A of “People are formed the most by their parents, relationships, and values” is correct because people learn the most when they are aged zero to six.  This is when they live with their families.  This has been proven throughout the scientific world an abundant amount of times.  View B of “People are formed the most by their own genetics and personality and personal decisions” is semi-accurate due to the twin study by  Waaktaar & Torgersen, but only 75% of the personality traits stayed with the twins that were separated.  So, view B is not 100% accurate.  View C is that “People are formed the most by the current influences of their time:  peers, spouse/significant others, and media”.  People do learn by imitation, but at this point, their personalities have already formed.  They may copy off their friends, but they still have the personalities they obtained from when they were infants to age 6.

Stress in the Workplace


Ever since human beings came into existence, there were always “jobs” that humans did or had to do in order to survive.  If there were not, there would never be any technological advances and a lot of individuals would not even exist without the medical advances that were found out because of the hard work of others.  Unfortunately, every job and every workplace has stressors that can be very hard to avoid.  These stressors can also cause health problems.

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The job I currently have has been putting a lot of stress on me and I have started having major heart problems because of this.  The main reason for my rapid decline in heart health seems to be the workload incompatibility factor at my workplace.  I am also predisposed to this condition due to  my genetics, but I have never had problems before this job.  In order to manage my feelings of workload incompatibility and thus avoid future health problems, I can implement positive communication with the other employees and my boss about the workload; I can handle my work with a positive attitude and avoid thinking about the things that I cannot control; and I can talk about my workplace stresses with my family and my doctor in order to avoid the stress that unnecessarily bottles up.

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In every place and every situation, there will be people that can be hard to deal with.  Being in a work environment with these types of people can be one of the hardest things to deal with.  As an employee, one must maintain a positive and professional attitude towards the other employees.  This positive and professional attitude can sometimes become weary due to too much stress.  There are two workers that I work with that never have as much work as my division of criminal and traffic.  There is one other worker that works in my criminal and traffic division.  She is also not treated equally.  The two workers that never have a lot of work are in the civil division.  The workload incompatibility is vast.  In order to avoid complications for my mentality and my health, I can voice my concerns to the other employees.  If they don’t listen to my concerns, I can contact the manager in order to help me in the situation.  Whenever I do develop feelings that I feel like I can’t control, I can communicate with the other employees as much as possible in order to fix the issue.

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There are a lot of things in old and established companies that cannot be controlled or contained.  As Goudreau from Forbes magazine says, “We experience stress when we feel that situations are out of our control”.  I need to stop worrying about the things that I cannot change.  This is a good tip for the workplace, but is also true for my life in general.  Positivism could help contribute to a better work environment for everyone.  Positive energy has an effect on others, also.  In the same environment, different peoples’ energies contribute to others’ energies.  Even so, I can not change how the other employees think.  There is only so much that one employee can do at a workplace.  There should be equal contributions from each employee so the stress does not build up on just one person.  Because I am a new employee, I feel as though I am being discriminated against.  This should also be prevented because new employees need a chance to adjust and they should not have to do the work that other people simply don’t want to do.

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When people have stress, it is only natural for this stress to build up.  When stress builds up, it can cause an emotional explosion.  The things that are stressing someone out need to be talked about.  One cannot hide their feelings for too long.  Even though a person may feel invincible when they start a new job, that is definitely not the case.  And when we are feeling too confident, We often feel obligated to say “yes” to everything for fear we won’t be liked. But the greatest act of stress relief is exercising your right to say no.  When that doesn’t work or make a person happy, the best thing to do is talk to your loved ones about the stress that you are feeling.  An even better thing to do is talk to a medical professional about the issue.  Medical professionals aren’t as available as loved ones and family members, though.  So before things bottle up, it is best to turn to the people that are there for you all of the time.

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Every person appreciates compliments.  In order to help out another worker, even little compliments can help their egos.  As Ellen DeGeneres put it, “we spend our time thinking about what other people are thinking about us…when all they’re really thinking about is what we’re thinking about them”.  This anxiety about what others are thinking cannot necessarily be stopped, but it can be acknowledged.  Also, knowing that every other person has some sort of anxious feelings about themselves helps a person get through the day when they are feeling inadequate.

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The two most important factors that go along with my current goals are being honest with myself and helping others as opposed to only helping myself when I am distressed.  I cannot lie to myself and act like I am okay when I am not.  When I am not emotionally and/or physically okay, I will tell the other employees and my supervisor.  I will especially tell the others that work with me these things when I am experiencing chest pain due to my heart problems.  I cannot sacrifice my health for my work as much as I may think that it is necessary.  I do need to have monetary resources, but money is definitely not the key to happiness.  This is seen time and time again with celebrities.  No matter how much money a celebrity has, they still seem unhappy and a lot of them die at early ages due to not being sufficiently happy despite how much money they have available to them.

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When I am distressed with the workload, the other employees probably feel the same way as I do.  I cannot just feel sorry for myself when the workload gets challenging.  I need to collaborate with the other employees to make the workload manageable.  If my concerns and the concerns of others are not dealt with in the proper way, then the whole workplace can suffer the consequences.

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Because I am new to my current job, my first future goal is to get comfortable in my workplace.  Being the new employee is not easy for any person, but approaching the situation with a positive attitude can mean everything.  I try to be thankful for the fact that I have such a meaningful job every day.  Even though I am only one person, my job involves working for the government.  This is an opportunity that not many people get the chance to have.  Regardless of the struggles I may face, I need to keep my chin up.  This is something for me to cherish as opposed to relish.

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In conclusion, stress can never be avoided in the workplace or in life in general.  The best that people can do is enjoy what they have.  In this economy, it’s hard to find a job and having a job should really be cherished.  The technology and the medical advances that are available to us are also opportunities that we take for granted.    Health problems are things that can be avoided, but when they are due to genetics, they cannot be avoided as easily.  When I give it a lot of thought, I realize that every workplace has some incompatibility and this especially occurs when there is miscommunication between the employees and the bosses/managers.  There are also things that cannot be controlled by any one person so these things must be let go in order to have a positive work environment.  Stress cannot build up and every person needs to vent their feelings to their loved ones and their doctors.  Complimenting others can also mean the world to somebody because every person always is subconsciously thinking about what another person is thinking about them.  One little random compliment can change somebody’s day regardless of who the person is.  Be thankful for what you have because you never know when it can be taken away.

Why God Does Not Exist


[Premise 1] If God existed, there would not be pointless evil and suffering placed upon people.
[Premise 2]  There is pointless evil and suffering all over the world.
[Conclusion] Therefore, God does not exist.

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Introduction to the Argument:

            Many people strongly believe and pray to their understanding of God every day.  This gives them a sense of hope and belonging to the world that we live in.  It provides a sense of community to the people who believe in the same God.  These people like to look past or make excuses for all of the bad things that have happened to them, their loved ones, animals, and human beings in general.  In the article The Problem of Evil and Some Varieties of Atheism, William L. Rowe explains that a supposed omnipotent God would prevent pointless evil, he lets the audience know what pointless evil is, and he explains why he thinks there is pointless evil in general.

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Explain the Argument About the Lack of God:

            If there were a benevolent God overlooking the world, there would not be constant pain, suffering, and killing going on every day.  These things constitute pointless evil.  A holy and all-powerful being would be able to prevent suffering and evil on all levels.  He would not just sit by and watch a massive amount of people and animals endure both emotional and physical pain due to the evil permeating the world.  Why is this evil occurring in the first place if there is an omnipotent and all-good God?

Rowe states that “if the intense suffering leads to some greater good, a good we could not have obtained without undergoing the suffering in question, we might conclude that the suffering is justified, but it remains an evil nevertheless”.  Pointless evil is the evil in which we cannot figure out the greater good of it.  Rowe gives an example of pointless evil occurring and that example is:  “In the fire a fawn is trapped, horribly burned, and lies in terrible agony for several days before death relieves its suffering. So far as we can see, the fawn’s intense suffering is pointless”.  The suffering of the fawn will never lead to the greater good of living creatures.

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No one really knows for sure why there is so much evil that leads nowhere.  “The theist may point out that some suffering leads to moral and spiritual development impossible without suffering. But it’s reasonably clear that suffering often occurs in a degree far beyond what is required for character development” (Rowe).  Even if some suffering is “required” according to a believer of God, why is the suffering so intense?  If suffering was needed for moral and spiritual development according to God, he would make the suffering as short and painless as it could possibly be.

Assessing the Argument About God’s Nonexistence and Permeating Evil: 

            It seems as if there are more instances of evil in this world as there are instances of good.  This evil is not justified and it has no point to it.  There are no sins that can lead to the intense amount of suffering that human beings and other living creatures endure.  There is a theory that people are born innately good and there is a theory that people are born innately evil.  I believe that people are born innately evil.  There are natural urges in every human being that cause them to do things that are ungodly.  A human being that is born innately good would have no bad inclinations.  Bad inclinations lead to sinning according to theists.  If everyone has bad inclinations, then every person has sinned.  Thus, they were not born innately good.  It takes a lot for a person to ignore their bad inclinations.

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Animals endure suffering everyday because of human beings.  The evil that is placed on animals has absolutely no point.  The animals that endure the most constant suffering are the animals in slaughterhouses.  If there were an omnipotent God and he believed that human beings need to eat other living creatures, he would make them endure the least amount of suffering possible in their deaths.  These animals should just be put to sleep.  In reality, they are cut open while they are alive and they are trapped in small spaces.  This is more than just animal abuse.  This is animal torture.  The people who kill these animals mercilessly are incomprehensible.  No one should be okay with torturing other living things for their own benefit.

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Every species of living creatures seems to get abused by human beings in general.  There are many pets that get abused daily.  People have pets to keep them company.  This company should be cherished.  If an animal does something that a human does not like, they should not be punished because animals have natural urges and instincts just as humans do.  They should not be treated as lower beings.

There are people who kill and are in gangs and there are people that are always purposely doing wrong and evil things to others, but they sometimes never get caught or punished.  They may even prosper from their wrongdoings.  On the other hand, there are people that do very good deeds and are kind to others, but these people have awful things happen to them or they suffer with terrible illnesses.

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Natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, and tsunamis kill and cause pain and suffering to the people who survive.  Also, wars are abounding constantly all over the world and millions of people die or get majorly injured physically and emotionally due to the evil doings of others.  If there were a God, natural disasters and wars would not occur because they are pointless evil due to the wreckage they cause.

Reactions to Possible Objections about the Nonexistence of an Omnipotent God:

            The majority of people believe in some sort of God.  A lot of people would object to an atheist’s point of view because they would make excuses for the suffering.  The biggest argument that a theist may submit is “pointing out goods, for example, to which suffering may well be connected, goods which an omnipotent, omniscient being could not achieve without permitting suffering” (Rowe).  A response to this belief would be that if there was a God, he would let it be known why the suffering was occurring.  If a person has suffered or is currently suffering, they are never told why this is occurring by this omnipotent God.  They cannot change their ways for God if they do not know why God was punishing them.  Hiding things from someone is ungodly so God should not be permitted to hide things either.  Everything should be out in the open to ensure understanding.

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Conclusion:

In summation, there are arguments for and against a God that is all-powerful.  Because of the evil constantly seen in this world, there are more plausible arguments that are against an omnipotent God.  An omnipotent God would not allow any living being to endure the amount of suffering that every living thing has to endure in their lifetime.